Phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity of two medicinal plants (Anogeissus leiocarpus and Daniellia oliveri) used in traditional veterinary medicine in Burkina Faso 

By KABORE Adama, TAMBOURA Hamidou H., TRAORE Aristide, TRAORE Amadou, MEDA Roland, KIENDREBEOGO Martin, Belem A.M.Gaston, SAWADOGO Laya 

ABSTRACT

The traditional veterinary pharmacopoeia is a common practice of smallholders and pastoralists to treat small ruminant gastro-intestinal parasitism in the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso. The remedies made from plants such as Anogeissus leiocarpus and Daniellia oliveri are commonly used to treat this disease. In this study, surveys were conducted to understand the traditional practice use of both plants, to identify their phytochemical composition and to evaluate their acute toxicity in mice. The results showed that leaves and stem bark are plant parts used for A. leiocarpus and D. oliveri respectively. They are traditionally used as a decoction of which the lyophilized product is administered orally to small ruminants at a rate of 160 mg/kg for A. leiocarpus leaves and 242.5 mg/kg for D. oliveri stem bark. In both plants, flavonoids, tannins and polyphenols are present. On the other hand, the lethal doses (LD50) obtained were 2403.6 mg/kg for A. leiocarpus leaves extract and more than 3500 mg /kg for D. oliveri stem bark extract. Thus, these plant extracts can possibly use as alternative products in the treatment of animal diseases and the result of this study can be used as the basis of clinical studies on animals. 

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