Heavy metal assessment of some eye shadow products imported into Nigeria from China
By molaoye J.A., Uzairu A., and Gimba C.E.
Chinese made eye shadows (cosmetic commonly used by women and children) were analysed to determine the levels of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, and Mn) in the products. Different samples of eye shadow were randomly selected from products available in the shops at Zaria, Kano and Kaduna markets in Nigeria. After digestion with concentrated acids (HNO3 and HCl), concentrations of the selected heavy metals were determined in triplicate using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Nickel, copper, zinc, cobalt and manganese were detected in all the colours of eye shadow in varying concentrations. Chromium was also detected in all the colours except one (Diamond pink). The regulations relating to cosmetics products gave no limit values for toxic elements such as metals occurring as impurities in cosmetics products. However, it has been proposed that the levels of nickel, cobalt and chromium should preferably be less than 170 µgg-1 and Lead should not exceed 20 µgg-1. 85% of the colours have Ni and Co concentrations above 170 µgg-1 but Cr concentrations were below this limit in all the colours. Only 2 brands (3 colours) have lead content higher than 20 µgg-1. 7 out of 20 colours (35%) of the brands of eye shadows contain cadmium at low concentrations. It is obvious from the present study that the use of facial cosmetics like eye shadow exposes users to low levels of heavy metals.
Keywords: Heavy metal; Eye shadow; cosmetics.
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