By Debjit Bhowmik, Chiranjib, Jyoti Jaiswal, K. K. Tripathi, K. P. Sampath Kumar
A migraine is a severe, painful headache that is often preceded or accompanied by sensory warning signs such as flashes of light, blind spots, tingling in the arms and legs, nausea, vomiting, and increased sensitivity to light and sound. The excruciating pain that migraines bring can last for hours or even days. Migraine headaches result from a combination of blood vessel enlargement and the release of chemicals from nerve fibers that coil around these blood vessels. This causes a release of chemicals that cause inflammation, pain, and further enlargement of the artery. Medical science has proven a clear cut chemical imbalance in the lining of the blood vessels on the surface of the brain which carry pure blood to the brain. Migraine headache typically occurs in only a half of the head. It begins with a warning of some form. This takes the form of visual disturbance like blurring vision or visions of irregular circles of light round bright lights. All this could be terribly irritating. Migraine headache begins around the region of the eyes and forehead. Analgesics are used to relieve the pain, ergot preparations are also effective. Sumatriptan is used for acute attacks of migraine. Beta blockers may also be helpful. In cluster headaches, prophylaxis with drugs such as Valproic Acid, Verapamil, or Lithium Carbonate is more effective than the use of drugs during acute attacks. Tension headaches are controlled well by the use of analgesics. The prevention of a migraine attack is by trying to identify any precipitating factor and avoiding the same. The use of counseling and psychotherapy is essential in highly stressed, nervous and emotional individuals.
Key Words : Migraine, causes, symptoms, treatments, analgesics, pain.
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