Mucoadhesive in situ gels of local anaesthetic for periodontia

By Pravin Kumar, Rajendra Awasthi, Puneet Kumar Rai, Manish Kumar and T. M Pramod Kumar

ABSTRACT


The present study was carried out to formulate mucoadhesive in situ gels of local anaesthetics for administering into periodontal pocket that gives fast onset of anaesthesia lasting throughout the dental procedure, which is painless. Temperature sensitive mucoadhesive in situ gelling system containing  5% w/v lidocaine hydrochloride (Lidocaine HCl) was formulated by cold method using combination of pluronic F 127 (PF 127) and carbopol 934 (C 934). The gels were evaluated for drug content, gelation temperature, viscosity, mucoadhesive strength, sterility, In vitro release and clinical studies. The drug content in all the formulations was found to be satisfactory. The formulations containing 18% w/v of PF 127 showed gelation near to body temperature. Viscosity studies showed a marked increase in viscosity of the gels at 370C due to sol-gel conversion with increase in temperature. The viscosity and mucoadhesiveness increased with increase in C 934. In vitro release studies showed that as the concentration of PF 127 increased the rate of drug release decreased. The drug release from the formulations was diffusion controlled without swelling. A placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of the Lidocaine HCl gel during scaling and root planing (SRP). In the study population, local anaesthetic gel 5% was statistically significant and more effective than the placebo. The results suggested that Lidocaine HCl 5% in situ gel may be a suitable formulation as it was clinically effective in reducing SRP pain for those patients who perceive the procedure to be painful.

Key words: Lidocaine hydrochloride; In Situ gels; pluronic F 127; carbopol 934;       periodontitis

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