Metallic contamination in sewerage, canal and drinking waters of Taxila- a gateway to Ghandara civilization

By Hussain, S.T., Mahmood, T.*, Malik, S.A. and Amir, S.

Abstract

Taxila is the tehsil of district Rawalpindi, of Pakistan. Now a day due to rapid industrialization and increase in population, various sources of water are contaminated. Analysis of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) in sewerage, canal and drinking waters potentiometeric analysis (PSA) was conducted. Samples were collected from different locations in the thasil Taxila of Rawalpindi. The data indicated wide variation in the concentration of these heavy metals among various water samples. The ranges of Cd, Pb and Cu in drinking water lie between 0.23-2.75, 0.025-1.88 and 0.67 mg/l respectively. Similarly the results of sewerage water showed the concentration of Cd and Pb in the range of 0.036-1.25 and 0.004 and 11.50 mg/l while copper concentration was below detection limit in all samples. The highest level of Cd and Pb in the canal water were 0.38 and 2.08 mg/l respectively. The results thus obtained were compared with the guidelines recommended for drinking water.

 

Key Words : Taxila: Ghandara; wastewater; metals; canal water; metallic pollution.

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