By Debjit Bhowmik, Chiranjib, Biswajit, Vinod Dubey, K. K. Tripathi, K. P. Sampath Kumar
The intrauterine contraceptive device, or IUD, is a small plastic or copper device that's put into the womb. There are many different types, which are effective for three to ten years depending on type. The IUD is a long-acting reversible method of contraception. An intra-uterine device is a special device that fits inside of the uterus. There is more than one type of IUD. One type contains the hormone levonorgestrel. The hormone is continuously released into the uterus. Another type of IUD is covered by copper. The copper IUD has copper wire coiled around the stem and arms of the device. Both are about 1 1/4 inches tall. Each IUD has a string attached to the end, so the woman can check that the IUD is in place and so it is easier for your health care provider to remove it. The IUD is inserted into your uterus through your vagina and protects against pregnancy. Although the IUD has been used for more than 30 years to prevent pregnancy, how it works is still not fully understood. The IUD affects sperm movement and survival in the uterus (womb) so that they cannot reach the egg to fertilise it. Copper IUDs prevent sperm from being able to go into the egg by immobilizing the sperm on the way to the fallopian tubes. If an egg does become fertilized, implantation on the wall of the uterus is prevented because copper changes the lining of the uterus. With hormonal IUDs, a small amount of progestin or a similar hormone is released into the uterus. These hormones thicken cervical mucus and make it difficult for sperm to enter the cervix. Hormonal IUDs also slow down the growth of the uterine lining, making it inhospitable for fertilized eggs.
Key Words : IUCD, Copper, Uterus, Contraceptives.
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